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Doctoral thesis, 2011

Satiating effects of rye foods

Isaksson, Hanna


The satiating capacity of foods and meals is affected by caloric content, but also varies with several aspects of food composition (e.g. macronutrient composition, energy density, fibre content and food structure). Rye is a cereal that possesses interesting characteristics with the potential to increase satiety. There are currently public health threats related to overweight and obesity, conditions that result from energy intake exceeding energy output. Excessive energy intake can be avoided by diets based on foods that prolong the feeling of fullness per calorie. This work aimed to study the effects of rye foods on subjective appetite. Ratings of satiety, hunger and desire to eat were recorded during 8 h after intake of wellcharacterised rye foods, compared with iso-caloric refined wheat bread, served as parts of breakfast meals in cross-over design studies. The effect of rye processing (sifting and milling) on perceived appetite was investigated by comparing rye kernels and whole-grain rye flour in breads and porridges. The effect of regular consumption of whole-grain rye porridge compared with refined wheat bread was investigated during three weeks, along with self-reported food intake and oro-caecal transit-time. Apparent small intestine absorption of macronutrients in response to diets supplemented with high-fibre rye or with low fibre wheat bread was studied in an ileostomy model. All rye products (whole-grain porridges made from flour, flakes or kernels and breads including whole-grain flour, kernels or milling fractions) improved satiety and decreased hunger for up to 8 h after intake, in contrast to refined wheat bread. Rye bran as bread ingredient resulted in improved satiety compared with other rye fractions. The effect of milling was demonstrated as rye kernel intake resulted in higher satiety ratings appearing 4 h after intake and remained at a higher level during the following 4 h, compared with bread with the same material milled to flour. At regular consumption of whole-grain rye porridge for three weeks, the post-meal satiety was constant and remained at a higher level compared with refined wheat bread. Replacement of low-fibre wheat bread with high-fibre rye bread in a standardised diet resulted in higher amounts of all macronutrients being excreted from the terminal ileum in ileostomy subjects, showing lowered small intestine absorption of the high-fibre diet. A range of rye products was shown to improve satiety up to 8 h after intake and inclusion of rye foods into a healthy diet may thereby potentially prevent body weight gain.


rye; satiety; secale cereale; breakfast cereals; dietary fibres; food intake; appetite; nutrition physiology

Published in

Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae
2011, number: 2011:99
ISBN: 978-91-576-7643-6
Publisher: Department of Food Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Authors' information

Isaksson, Hanna
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Food Science

UKÄ Subject classification

Food Science

Publication Identifiers


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