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Research article2012Peer reviewedOpen access

Composting for avian influenza virus elimination

Elving, Josefine; Emmoth, Eva; Albihn, Ann; Vinneras, Bjorn; Ottoson, Jakob


Effective sanitization is important in viral epizootic outbreaks to avoid further spread of the pathogen. This study examined thermal inactivation as a sanitizing treatment for manure inoculated with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H7N1 and bacteriophages MS2 and phi 6. Rapid inactivation of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H7N1 was achieved at both mesophilic (35 degrees C) and thermophilic (45 and 55 degrees C) temperatures. Similar inactivation rates were observed for bacteriophage phi 6, while bacteriophage MS2 proved too thermoresistant to be considered a valuable indicator organism for avian influenza virus during thermal treatments. Guidelines for treatment of litter in the event of emergency composting can be formulated based on the inactivation rates obtained in the study.

Published in

Applied and Environmental Microbiology
2012, Volume: 78, number: 9, pages: 3280-3285