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Research article2013Peer reviewed

Effects of moisture content, torrefaction temperature, and die temperature in pilot scale pelletizing of torrefied Norway spruce

Larsson, Sylvia; Rudolfsson, Magnus; Nordwaeger, Martin; Olofsson, Ingemar; Samuelsson, Robert


Pilot scale pelletizing of torrefied Norway spruce was performed in a factorial design with controlled factors at two levels: material moisture content (11% and 15%) and torrefaction temperature (270 and 300 degrees C), and die temperature as an uncontrolled factor (60-105 degrees C). Compared to commercial wood pellets, produced pellets had comparable bulk densities (630-710 kg/m(3)) but lower pellet durability (80-90%). Energy consumption for pelletizing of torrefied materials was approximately 100% higher than for softwood pelletizing, despite using a much shorter die channel length (35 vs. 55 mm:s), and the amounts of fines were high (10-30%). Die temperature showed a strong positive correlation with pellet production rate. Material moisture content had little influence on pellet quality and production rate, but addition of water created handling problems due to bad flow behavior. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Torrefied biomass; Pellet quality; Energy consumption; Bulk density; Durability; Compaction

Published in

Applied Energy
2013, Volume: 102, pages: 827-832