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Research article2003

Enhanced growth and ethylene increases spiral grain formation in Picea abies and Abies balsamea trees

Eklund L, Sall H, Linder S


Spiral grain angle in Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) seedlings was investigated in relation to growth rate, endogenous and applied ethylene. Trees from stands of Norway spruce, which were irrigated and fertilised in order to enhance growth, and trees having different growth rates in non-treated stands were studied. Stem growth rate at the stand level (m(3) ha(-1) year(-1)) was measured annually, or by means of microscopy on stem sections as the number and size of tracheids produced. Enhanced growth increased ethylene evolution and maintained a high level of left-handed spiral grain angle in comparison to slower-growing trees. An increased number of earlywood tracheids in fast growing trees was correlated to a more left-handed spiral grain angle. Ethrel, applied to stems of balsam fir seedlings, increased the internal ethylene levels in parallel with increased left-handed spiral grain angle. The results indicate that ethylene regulates the extent of spiral grain angle

Published in

Trees - Structure and Function
2003, Volume: 17, number: 1, pages: 81-86

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Forest Science

    Publication identifier


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