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Research article2012Peer reviewed

Governing Old-Growth Forests: The Interdependence of Actors in Great Bear Rainforest in British Columbia

Raitio, Kaisa; Saarikoski, Heli


The article explores the interdependence of state, civil society, and market actors in resolving environmental conflicts through new governance arrangements. Based on policy documents and in-depth interviews, the study shows that the government-led Land and Resource Management Plans concerning the coastal rainforests in British Columbia depended for their success on governance efforts that environmental organizations and forestry corporations initiated and carried through independently outside the formal planning processes. These nonstate actors, on the other hand, chose to engage with the provincial government, the First Nations, and the planning processes representing a large number of stakeholders, in order to gain the necessary legitimacy, certainty, and resources for the solutions created during their bilateral negotiations. The results show that when able to consciously coordinate separate processes and roles in the governance of forests, actors can create space for new solutions in seemingly intractable situations.


forest conflicts; forest planning; governance; Great Bear Rainforest

Published in

Society and Natural Resources
2012, Volume: 25, number: 9, pages: 900-914

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Communication Studies
    Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalization Studies)

    Publication identifier


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