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Conference paper2004

Separation of faeces combined with urine diversion - function and efficiency

Vinnerås Björn, Jönsson Håkan


The main proportion of the plant nutrients in household wastewater is found in the toilet fraction, and originates from urine and faeces. Using a blackwater system, is is possible to collect these nutrient rich fractions. However, the nutrients in the blackwater are diluted by large amounts of flushwater, even if a low-flush vacuum system is used. By using a combination or urine diversion and separation of faecal matter from the flushwater, it is possible to collect the majority of the nutrients in a much more concentrated form compared to blackwater systems. The efficiency of instant separation is higher than separation in a filter bag. The efficiency of the separation depends on the system design but if correctly designed and built, it is possible to separate 84% N, 86% P and 65% K from the faecal matter. In a system where 95% of the urine is diverted and the faecal matter is instantly separated, 93% of the nitrogen, 92% of the phosphorous and 87% of the potassium are separated into a fraction comprising half the volume of blackwater from a vacuum system


Blackwater; faecal separation; nutrient recovery; nutrient recycling; urine diversion

Published in

Title: Ecosan - closing the loop : proceedings of the 2nd international symposium, 7th - 11th april 2003, Lübeck, Germany
ISBN: 3-00-012791-7
Publisher: The 2nd International Symposium on Ecological Sanitation


The 2nd International Symposium on Ecological Sanitation, Incorporating the 1st IWA Specialist Group Conference on Sustainable Sanitation