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Research article2010Peer reviewedOpen access

Reforestation with planting in northern Europe

Nilsson U, Luoranen J, Kolstrom T, Orlander G, Puttonen P


This paper reviews regeneration research during the past 20 years. The focus is mainly on planting of Norway spruce and Scots pine. Research on root morphology and nursery practices has played an important role in the introduction of containerized seedlings in northern Europe. In recent years, mini-seedlings have been tested. Conventionally, seedlings are planted in spring and early autumn but recent research indicates that Norway spruce seedlings can be planted from spring until the end of September. Soil temperature strongly influences seedling establishment in the harsh northern Scandinavian climate and a good way to increase soil temperature is to plant in elevated planting spots, which can be achieved by mounding. Soil scarification also reduces competition from field vegetation and damage by pine weevils. In southern Finland, Sweden and Norway, pine weevils are by far the most serious causes of damage to both Norway spruce and Scots pine. Therefore, designing regeneration treatments for decreasing pine weevil damage without using insecticides is one of the more important current research challenges. Examples of possible future trends in forest regeneration research are an emphasis on more basic research, use of fast growing tree species, multidisciplinary approaches and site-specific regeneration regimes.


Norway spruce; nursery; Scots pine; site preparation

Published in

Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research
2010, Volume: 25, number: 4, pages: 283-294

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    SLU Future Forests

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