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Research article2012Peer reviewed

Soil processes and functions across an international network of Critical Zone Observatories: introduction to experimental methods and initial results

Banwart, Steven; Menon, Mahon; Bernasconi, Stefano, M.; Bloem, Jaap; Blum, Winfried; Moreira de Souza, Rita de Cassia; Davidsdotir, B; Duffy, C.; Lair, G.J; Kram, Pavel; Lundin, Lars; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos; Novak, Martin; Panagos, Panos; Ragnarsdottir, Kristin Vala; Reynolds, Brian; Robinson, P.; Rousseva, Svetla; Ruiter, Peter de; Gaans, Pauline van;
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Abstract

Growth in human population and demand for wealth creates ever-increasing pressure on global soils, leading to soil losses and degradation worldwide. Critical Zone science studies the impact linkages between these pressures, the resulting environmental state of soils, and potential interventions to protect soil and reverse degradation. New research on soil processes is being driven by the scientific hypothesis that soil processes can be described along a life cycle of soil development. This begins with formation of new soil from parent material, development of the soil profile, and potential loss of the developed soil functions and the soil itself under overly intensive anthropogenic land use, thus closing the cycle. Four Critical Zone Observatories in Europe have been selected focusing research at sites * Corresponding author. E-mail address:s.a.banwart@sheffield.ac.uk (S. Banwart). Contents lists available atSciVerse ScienceDirect Comptes Rendus Geoscience w ww.s c ien ced irec t.c o m 1631-0713/$ – see front matter2012 Acade¡¦mie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crte.2012.10.007 1. Introduction Increasing global population, estimated to reach 9 billion by 2050, is placing ever-increasing pressure on natural resources, soils being no exception ( 2011 Traditionally, soils have been largely managed with a single use in mind, primarily for food, feed or fibre production. However, soils provide other important functions ( our terrestrial ecosystems, regulating the atmosphere through carbon storage, filtering water, recycling waste,Banwart,), with the need to feed, clothe and shelter so many.Blum, 2006) including supporting and sustaining that represent key stages along the hypothetical soil life cycle; incipient soil formation, productive use of soil for farming and forestry, and decline of soil due to longstanding intensive agriculture. Initial results from the research show that soil develops important biogeochemical properties on the time scale of decades and that soil carbon and the development of favourable soil structure takes place over similar time scales. A new mathematical model of soil aggregate formation and degradation predicts that set-aside land at the most degraded site studied can develop substantially improved soil structure with the accumulation of soil carbon over a period of several years. Further results demonstrate the rapid dynamics of soil carbon; how quickly it can be lost, and also demonstrate how data from the CZOs can be used to determine parameter values for models at catchment scale. A structure for a new integrated Critical Zone model is proposed that combines process descriptions of carbon and nutrient flows, a simplified description of the soil food web, and reactive transport; all coupled with a dynamic model for soil structure and soil aggregation. This approach is proposed as a methodology to analyse data along the soil life cycle and test how soil processes and rates vary within, and between, the CZOs representing different life cycle stages. In addition, frameworks are discussed that will help to communicate the results of this science into a more policy relevant format using ecosystem service approaches.

Published in

Comptes Rendus Géoscience
2012, Volume: 344, number: 11-12, pages: 758-772

      SLU Authors

    • Sustainable Development Goals

      SDG2 Zero hunger
      SDG15 Life on land

      UKÄ Subject classification

      Geosciences, Multidisciplinary

      Publication identifier

      DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crte.2012.10.007

      Permanent link to this page (URI)

      https://res.slu.se/id/publ/42420