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Research article2013Peer reviewed

Intervertebral disc degeneration in the dog. Part 2: Chondrodystrophic and non-chondrodystrophic breeds

Smolders, Lucas A.; Bergknut, Niklas; Grinwis, Guy C.M.; Hagman, Ragnvi; Lagerstedt, Anne-Sofie; Hazewinkel, Herman; Tryfonidou, Marianna A.; Meij, Björn P.


Dogs can be grouped into two distinct types of breed based on the predisposition to chondrodystrophy, namely, non-chondrodystrophic (NCD) and chondrodystrophic (CD). In addition to a different process of endochondral ossification, NCD and CD breeds have different characteristics of intravertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and IVD degenerative diseases. The anatomy, physiology, histopathology, and biochemical and biomechanical characteristics of the healthy and degenerated IVD are discussed in the first part of this two-part review. This second part describes the similarities and differences in the histopathological and biochemical characteristics of IVD degeneration in CD and NCD canine breeds and discusses relevant aetiological factors of IVD degeneration. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Intervertebral disc; Degeneration; Hernia; Dog; Chondrodystrophic; Non-chondrodystrophic; Notochordal cell

Published in

Veterinary Journal
2013, Volume: 195, number: 3, pages: 292-299