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Research article2004Peer reviewed

A new method to detect cadmium uptake in protoplasts

Lindberg S, Landberg T, Greger M


The mechanism for cadmium (Cd2+) uptake into the cytosol of protoplasts from 5- to 7-day-old wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Kadett) was investigated by a new method, using fluorescence microscopy and the heavy metal-specific fluorescent dye, 5-nitrobenzothiazole coumarin, BTC-5N. Cadmium fluorescence gradually increased in the cytosol of shoot and root protoplasts upon repeated additions of CdCl2 to the external medium, reflecting an uptake of Cd2+. The uptake was inhibited by calcium and potassium chloride, as well as by Verapamil and tetraethylammonium (TEA), inhibitors of calcium and potassium channels, respectively. Calcium competitively inhibited the cadmium uptake. The metabolic inhibitors vanadate and dinitrophenol partly inhibited the uptake, suggesting it was dependent on membrane potential. The results indicate that cadmium is taken up by channels permeable to both calcium and potassium. The total uptake of cadmium into the protoplasts was also detected by unidirectional flux analyses using Cd-109(2+), and showed approximately the same maximal concentration of Cd2+ as the fluorescence measurements. By combining the two methods it is possible to detect both uptake into the cytosol and into the vacuole


Cadmium uptake; fluorescence microscopy; protoplasts; mechanism; Triticum aestivum

Published in

2004, Volume: 219, number: 3, pages: 526-532
Publisher: SPRINGER

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Agricultural Science
    Food Science

    Publication identifier


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