- Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Ulen, Barbro; Larsbo, Mats; Kreuger, Jenny; Svanbäck, Annika
BACKGROUND: Subsurface transport via tile drains can significantly contribute to pesticide contamination of surface waters. The spatial variation in subsurface leaching of normally applied herbicides was examined together with phosphorus losses in 24 experimental plots with water sampled flow-proportionally. The study site was a flat, tile-drained area with 60% marine clay in the topsoil in southeast Sweden. The objectives were to quantify the leaching of frequently used herbicides from a tile drained cracking clay soil and to evaluate the variation in leaching within the experimental area and relate this to topsoil management practices (tillagemethod and structure liming). RESULTS: In summer 2009, 0.14, 0.22 and 1.62%, respectively, of simultaneously applied amounts of MCPA, fluroxypyr and clopyralid were leached by heavy rain five days after spraying. In summer 2011, on average 0.70% of applied bentazone was leached by short bursts of intensive rain 12 days after application. Peak flow concentrations for 50% of the treated area for MCPA and 33% for bentazone exceeded the Swedish no-effect guideline values for aquatic ecosystems. Approximately 0.08% of the glyphosate applied was leached in dissolved form in the winters of 2008/2009 and 2010/2011. Based on measurements of glyphosate in particulate form, total glyphosate losseswere twice as high (0.16%) in the second winter. The spatial inter-plot variation was large (72–115%) for all five herbicides studied, despite small variations (25%) in water discharge. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the importance of local scale soil transport properties for herbicide leaching in cracking clay soils.
bentazone; clopyralid; glyphosate; fluroxypyr; MCPA; subsoil
Pest Management Science
2014, Volume: 70, number: 3, pages: 405-414
SDG6 Clean water and sanitation
SDG14 Life below water