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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2009

Identification of Sex Pheromone Components of the Hessian Fly, Mayetiola destructor

Andersson, Martin; Haftmann, Jenny; Stuart, Jeffrey J.; Cambron, Sue; Harris, Marion O; Foster, Stephen P; Franke, Stephan; Francke, Wittko; Hillbur, Ylva


Coupled gas chromatographic (GC)-electroantennographic detection (EAD) analyses of ovipositor extract of calling Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, females revealed that seven compounds elicited responses from male antennae. Four of the compounds-(2S)-tridec-2-yl acetate, (2S,10Z)-10-tridecen-2-yl acetate, (2S,10E)-10-tridecen-2-yl acetate, and (2S,10E)-10-tridecen-2-ol-were identified previously in female extracts. Two new EAD-active compounds, (2S,8Z,10E)-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate and (2S,8E,10E)-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, were identified by GC-mass spectroscopy (MS) and the use of synthetic reference samples. In a Y-tube bioassay, a five-component blend (1 ng (2S)-tridec-2-yl acetate, 10 ng (2S,10E)-10-tridecen-2-yl acetate, 1 ng (2S,10E)-10-tridecen-2-ol, 1 ng (2S,8Z,10E)-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and 1 ng (2S,8E,10E)-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate) was as attractive to male Hessian flies as a similar amount of female extract (with respect to the main compound, (2S,10E)-10-tridecen-2-yl acetate). The five-component blend was more attractive to male flies than a three-component blend lacking the two dienes. Furthermore, the five-component blend was more attractive than a blend with the same compounds but that contained one tenth the concentration of (2S,8E,10E)-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate (more accurately mimicking the ratios found in female extract). This suggests that the ratios emitted by females might deviate from those in gland extracts. In a field-trapping experiment, the five-component blend applied to polyethylene cap dispensers in a 100:10 mu g ratio between the main component and each of the other blend components attracted a significant number of male Hessian flies. Also, a small-plot field test demonstrated the attractiveness of the five-component blend to male Hessian flies and suggests that this pheromone blend may be useful for monitoring and predicting Hessian fly outbreaks in agricultural systems.


Mayetiola destructor; Hessian fly; Cecidomyiidae; Diptera; Sex pheromone; (2S)-Tridec-2-yl acetate; (2S,10E)-10-tridecen-2-yl acetate; (2S,10E)-10-Tridecen-2-ol; (2S,8Z,10E)-8; 10-Tridecadien-2-yl acetate; (2S,8E,10E)-8; 10-Tridecadien-2-yl acetate; GC-EAD; Y-tube bioassay; Field trapping

Published in

Journal of Chemical Ecology
2009, Volume: 35, number: 1, pages: 81-95
Publisher: SPRINGER

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