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Review article2011Peer reviewed

EU reference conditions in Swedish lakes identified with diatoms as palaeoindicators - a review

Gottschalk, Steffi


This study aims to assess the reference conditions and reference diatom communities for Swedish lakes by summarizing 36 performed palaeolimnological studies. The following results can serve as a tool in the discussion about reference conditions according to the European Water Framework Directive. (1) Finding one general fixed time of prevailing reference conditions for all Swedish lakes is impossible. (2) 1850 AD, as an often applied fixed reference time, is not an appropriate reference time for all Swedish lakes. (3) Reference nutrient and pH conditions for many southern Swedish lakes were prevailing until about 2300 BP. (4) Reference nutrient and pH conditions for many northern Swedish lakes prevailed longer and may even prevail today. (5) Different reference diatom communities can be found: either benthic (both acidophilous and alkaliphilous) or planktonic communities.

Published in

Boreal Environment Research
2011, Volume: 16, number: 6, pages: 473-494

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use

    Permanent link to this page (URI)