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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2011

Development and non-indigenous species at the global scale

Gren, Ing-Marie; Campos, Monica


This paper investigates the explanatory power of development, prosperity and regulatory capability as proximate causes of non-indigenous species (NIS) occurrence in different countries, doing this by statistically analysing a global cross-sectional data set. Since the quantification of development is subject to much discussion, two different indicators are tested: gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and the United Nations human development index (HDI). A corruption index is used as an indicator of regulatory capacity. In addition, variables capturing country openness, which facilitates NIS introduction, and habitat conditions, which determine NIS establishment, are included as explanatory variables. The GDP indicator together with the corruption index fits the NIS data best, where the number of NIS is higher in countries with larger incomes. However, countries with relatively high income but low institutional capacity show a larger number of NIS than countries with a similar level of income but with higher institutional capacity. The results also point to the significant contributions of openness and habitat fragmentation to NIS occurrences in the countries.


Non-indigenous species; Development; Openness; Habitat conditions; Econometric test; Global scale

Published in

Regional Environmental Change
2011, Volume: 11, number: 3, pages: 593-601

    Sustainable Development Goals

    SDG8 Decent work and economic growth
    SDG10 Reduced inequalities

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
    Economics and Business
    Social Sciences

    Publication Identifiers


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