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Review article - Peer-reviewed, 2010

The European Water Framework Directive at the age of 10: A critical review of the achievements with recommendations for the future

Hering, Daniel; Borja, A; Cartensen, J; Carvalho, L; Elliott, M; Feld, C; Heiskanen, A-S; Johnson, Richard; Moe, J; Pont, D; Lyche Solheim, A; van de Bund, Wouter


The WFD river basin management plans base management decisions on the response of aquatic organisms to environmental stress. In contrast to the effects of degradation, the biotic response to restoration is less well-known and poorly predictable. The timescale of the WFD (obtaining good ecological status in all surface waters by 2027) is over-ambitious. Future challenges include long-term monitoring of restoration measures to understand the requirements for ecosystems to recover and prioritisation of measures according to recolonisation potential. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Assessment; Typology; Uncertainty; Monitoring; Heavily modified water bodies; River basin management plans; Restoration; Recovery

Published in

Science of the Total Environment
2010, volume: 408, number: 19, pages: 4007-4019

Authors' information

Hering, Daniel
Borja, A
Cartensen, J
Carvalho, L
Elliott, M
Feld, C
Heiskanen, A-S
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment
Moe, J
Pont, D
Lyche Solheim, A
Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA)
van de Bund, Wouter
Institute for Environment and Sustainability (JRC-IES)

Associated SLU-program

Lakes and watercourses

Sustainable Development Goals

SDG6 Clean water

UKÄ Subject classification

Fish and Aquacultural Science

Publication Identifiers


URI (permanent link to this page)