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Review article2010Peer reviewedOpen access

The European Water Framework Directive at the age of 10: A critical review of the achievements with recommendations for the future

Hering, Daniel; Borja, A; Cartensen, J; Carvalho, L; Elliott, M; Feld, C; Heiskanen, A-S; Johnson, Richard; Moe, J; Pont, D; Lyche Solheim, A; van de Bund, Wouter


The WFD river basin management plans base management decisions on the response of aquatic organisms to environmental stress. In contrast to the effects of degradation, the biotic response to restoration is less well-known and poorly predictable. The timescale of the WFD (obtaining good ecological status in all surface waters by 2027) is over-ambitious. Future challenges include long-term monitoring of restoration measures to understand the requirements for ecosystems to recover and prioritisation of measures according to recolonisation potential. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Assessment; Typology; Uncertainty; Monitoring; Heavily modified water bodies; River basin management plans; Restoration; Recovery

Published in

Science of the Total Environment
2010, Volume: 408, number: 19, pages: 4007-4019

    Associated SLU-program

    Lakes and watercourses

    Sustainable Development Goals

    SDG6 Clean water and sanitation

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Fish and Aquacultural Science

    Publication identifier


    Permanent link to this page (URI)