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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2010

Indirect detection of Fusarium verticillioides in maize (Zea mays L.) kernels by near infrared hyperspectral imaging

Williams, Paul; Manley, Marena; Fox, Glen; Geladi, Paul


Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging and hyperspectral image analysis were evaluated for their potential to distinguish between Fusarium verticillioides infected and sound whole maize (Zea mays L.) kernels. Hyperspectral images of infected and sound kernels were acquired using a Spectral Dimensions MatrixNIR camera with a spectral range of 960-1662 nm and a sisuChema hyperspectral pushbroom imaging system with a spectral range of 1000-2498 nm. Background, bad pixels and shading were removed using exploratory principal component analysis (PCAI on absorbance images. PCA could be used effectively on the cleaned images to identify classes including infected and non-infected regions on individual kernels. A distinct difference between infected and sound kernels along principal component (PC) one with two distinguishable clusters was found. The loading line plot of the first PC of the sisuChema hypercube showed important absorbance peaks for the two classes, i.e. 1960 nm and 2100nm for the infected class and 1450 nm, 2300nm and 2350nm for the non-infected class. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied. The coefficient of determination was 0.73 for the MatrixNIR image and 0.86 for the sisuChema image, both after three PLS components. These PLS-DA models could be used to calculate predictions on a test set image. The predictions could be shown as prediction images and an acceptable root mean square error of prediction was obtained (0.23). NIR hyperspectral imaging has the potential to be used as a rapid, objective means of indentifying fungal infected maize kernels and infected regions.


near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging; hyperspectral image analysis; Fusarium verticillioides; fungal infection; principal component analysis (PCA); partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA)

Published in

Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy
2010, Volume: 18, number: 1, pages: 49-58