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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2009

Fertiliser products from new sanitation systems: Their potential values and risks

Winker, M; Vinnerås, Björn; Muskolus, A; Arnold, U; Clemens, J


The plant nutrients consumed in human society today are lost through the established wastewater treatment systems in industrialised countries as well as via insufficient or non-existent handling of sewage in the developing world. New sanitation systems have been designated to overcome this failure. The source separated wastewater streams collected within these systems contain a high nutrient content, and can be used as fertiliser as well as soil conditioner after appropriate storage and/or treatment. Application in agriculture with existing techniques is feasible. However, pathogens and pharmaceuticals contained in these fertiliser types are a potential hazard. Nevertheless, storage and appropriate treatment can minimise the risks. The products deriving from these systems have a high potential to preserve available plant nutrient resources and deficiencies in agriculture as well as being able to substitute synthetic plant nutrients and at the same time prevent unwanted environmental nutrient over-enrichment. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


New sanitation systems; Pathogens; Pharmaceuticals; Fertiliser; Agriculture

Published in

Bioresource Technology
2009, volume: 100, number: 18, pages: 4090-4096

Authors' information

Winker, M
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Energy and Technology
Muskolus, A
Arnold, U
Clemens, J

Sustainable Development Goals

SDG6 Clean water and sanitation

UKÄ Subject classification

Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use

Publication Identifiers


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