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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2013

Optimal regeneration method - planting vs. natural regeneration of Scots pine in northern Sweden

Simonsen, Rune


In this study the profitability of regenerating Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was examined for two methods; planting and natural regeneration with seed trees. The methods were modelled on stand level and optimised numerically using nonlinear optimisation. The analysis includes 7 site indexes, 16 to 28 expressed as dominant height in meters at an age of 100 years; and 8 localities in northern Sweden distributed on two latitudes, 60 degrees N and 64 degrees N and four altitudes, 100 to 400 m.a.s.l. Furthermore, two scenarios of genetically improved planting material were examined. The results show that the optimal choice of regeneration method depends on the location, site index and discount rate. Considering the same genetic regeneration material, natural regeneration was the optimal method for most of the evaluated sites. Planting was optimal only for stands of high site index and low rate of seedling mortality, which is associated with localities on low altitudes. The break even site index, where the two methods yielded the same net present value, was 27 on average (25 to 28). The choice between the two regeneration methods was found to be more economically important when the discount rate was low and for low site indexes. The option of using genetically improved plant material shift the preference towards planting. Thus, the two levels of genetic gain of +4% and +10% to maximum mean annual increment resulted in an average break even site index of 25 and 21 respectively.


optimisation; silviculture; genetically improved planting material

Published in

Silva Fennica
2013, volume: 47, number: 2, article number: 928

Authors' information

Simonsen, Rune
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Economics

UKÄ Subject classification

Forest Science

Publication Identifiers


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