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Review article - Peer-reviewed, 2013

Standard methods for Nosema research

Fries, Ingemar; Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Yan-Ping, Chen; Doublet, Vincent; Genersch, Elke; Gisder, Sebastian; Higes, Mariano; McMahon, Dino P; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Natsopoulou, Myrsini; Paxton, Robert J.; Tanner, Gina; Webster, Thomas C; Williams, Geoffrey R


Methods are described for working with Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae in the field and in the laboratory. For fieldwork, different sampling methods are described to determine colony level infections at a given point in time, but also for following the temporal infection dynamics. Suggestions are made for how to standardise field trials for evaluating treatments and disease impact. The laboratory methods described include different means for determining colony level and individual bee infection levels and methods for species determination, including light microscopy, electron microscopy, and molecular methods (PCR). Suggestions are made for how to standardise cage trials, and different inoculation methods for infecting bees are described, including control methods for spore viability. A cell culture system for in vitro rearing of Nosema spp. is described. Finally, how to conduct different types of experiments are described, including infectious dose, dose effects, course of infection and longevity tests.


Nosema apis; Nosema ceranae; field methods; laboratory methods; sampling methods; infection dynamics; infection level; microscopy; species identification; standardised cage trials; inoculation methods; spore viability; cell culture; infectious dose; dose effects; course of infection; longevity tests; honey bee; BEEBOOK; COLOSS

Published in

Journal of Apicultural Research
2013, volume: 52, number: 1, article number: 52.1.14

Authors' information

Fries, Ingemar
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology
Chauzat, Marie-Pierre
French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES)
Yan-Ping, Chen
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Doublet, Vincent
Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
Genersch, Elke
Institute for Bee Research Hohen Neuendorf
Gisder, Sebastian
Institute for Bee Research Hohen Neuendorf
Higes, Mariano
Centro Apícola de Castilla-La Mancha
McMahon, Dino P
Queen's University Belfast
Martín-Hernández, Raquel
Centro Apícola de Castilla-La Mancha
Natsopoulou, Myrsini
Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
Paxton, Robert J.
Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
Tanner, Gina
Webster, Thomas C
Land Grant Program, Kentucky State University
Williams, Geoffrey R

UKÄ Subject classification

Other Veterinary Science

Publication Identifiers


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