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Research article2013Peer reviewedOpen access

Standard methods for virus research in Apis mellifera

Rodrigues De Miranda, Joachim; Bailey, Lesley; Ball, Brenda V; Blanchard, Philippe; Budge, Giles; Chejanovsky, Nor; Chen, Yanping; Gauthier, Laurent; Genersch, Elke; de Graaf, Dirk C; Ribiere, Magali; Ryabov, Eugene; DeSmet, Lina; van der Steen, Jozef J M


Honey bee virus research is an enormously broad area, ranging from subcellular molecular biology through physiology and behaviour, to individual and colony-level symptoms, transmission and epidemiology. The research methods used in virology are therefore equally diverse. This article covers those methods that are very particular to virological research in bees, with numerous cross-referrals to other BEEBOOK papers on more general methods, used in virology as well as other research. At the root of these methods is the realization that viruses at their most primary level inhabit a molecular, subcellular world, which they manipulate and interact with, to produce all higher order phenomena associated with virus infection and disease. Secondly, that viruses operate in an exponential world, while the host operates in a linear world and that much of the understanding and management of viruses hinges on reconciling these fundamental mathematical differences between virus and host. The article concentrates heavily on virus propagation and methods for detection, with minor excursions into surveying, sampling management and background information on the many viruses found in bees.


COLOSS BEEBOOK; honey bee; virus; sampling; purification; assays; standardisation

Published in

Journal of Apicultural Research
2013, Volume: 52, number: 4

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    Other Biological Topics

    Publication identifier


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