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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2013

Statistical guidelines for Apis mellifera research

Pirk, Christian W W; Rodrigues De Miranda, Joachim; Kramer, Matthew; Murray, Tomàs E; Nazzi, Francesco; Shutler, Dave; van der Steen, Jozef; van Dooremalen, Coby


In this article we provide guidelines on statistical design and analysis of data for all kinds of honey bee research. Guidelines and selection of different methods presented are, at least partly, based on experience. This article can be used: to identify the most suitable analysis for the type of data collected; to optimise one's experimental design based on the experimental factors to be investigated, samples to be analysed, and the type of data produced; to determine how, where, and when to sample bees from colonies; or just to inspire. Also included are guidelines on presentation and reporting of data, as well as where to find help and which types of software could be useful.


COLOSS; BEEBOOK; honey bees; sampling; sample size; GLMM; robust statistics; resampling; PCA; Power; rule of thumb

Published in

Journal of Apicultural Research
2013, volume: 52, number: 4

Authors' information

Pirk, Christian W W
University of Pretoria
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology
Kramer, Matthew
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Murray, Tomàs E
Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
Nazzi, Francesco
University of Udine, Italy
Shutler, Dave
Acadia University
van der Steen, Jozef
Wageningen University
van Dooremalen, Coby
Wageningen University

UKÄ Subject classification

Mathematical Analysis
Probability Theory and Statistics
Other Biological Topics

Publication Identifiers


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