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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2004

Emissions from a controlled fire in municipal solid waste bales

Nammari, Diauddin R.; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia; Nimmermark, Sven; Moutavtchi, Viatcheslav


Environmental and safety aspects of seasonal storage of baled municipal solid waste to be used as fuel for energy production (waste fuel), was investigated and experiments were carried out on burning of bales. The flammability, combustion processes and emissions were studied by simulating, in small-scale, potential effects of a possible fire in full-scale bale storage area. Despite the high water content and the high density of the bales, after setting fire, the bales burned well, even though no risk for self-ignition exists. The following parameters of the combustion product were measured continuously: O-2, CO2, CO, SO2, NO, NO2, NOx THC, smoke gas rate and the temperature of the smoke. Soot particles in the smoke were collected and analysed for Hg, Pb, Cd, As, Ni, Cr, Mn, Cu, Co, Sb and V concentrations. The analysis of the moisture content, concentrations of Hg, Cd, HCl, HF, HBr, NH3, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated and brominated dioxins (PCDD/F and PBrDD/F, respectively) were carried out. It was found that the PCDD/F levels (TEQs) varied according to the system used: 12.53 ng (I-TEF-88)/Nm(3); 14.09 ng (I-TEF-99)/Nm(3); 13.86 ng (Eadons)/Nm(3). The PAH concentration was 3.04 mug/Nm(3). The contents of the metals in the smoke (with the exceptions of Pb and Cd with mean values of 1.74 and 0.36 mg/m(3), respectively) were below the limit values established by the Swedish Ministry of Environment for emissions from incineration plants [Swedish Ministry of Environment, (2002:1060), Forordning 2002:1060 om avfallsforbranning. Available from]/EU-directive [(2000/76/EC), Directive 2000/76/EC, of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 December 2000 on the Incineration of Waste.]. The HCl concentration was 10 times higher than the limit value (mean value of 99 mg/m(3)). (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Published in

Waste Management
2004, volume: 24, number: 1, pages: 9-18

Authors' information

Nammari, Diauddin R.
University of Kalmar
Hogland, William
University of Kalmar
Marques, Marcia
Rio de Janeiro State University (UERJ)
Nimmermark, Sven
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Agricultural Biosystems and Technology
Moutavtchi, Viatcheslav
University of Kalmar

UKÄ Subject classification

Other Environmental Biotechnology
Environmental Management

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