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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2003

Physical and chemical processes in baled waste fuel, with emphasis on gaseous emissions

Nammari, Diauddin R.; Hogland, William; Moutavtchi, Viatcheslav; Marques, Marcia; Nimmermark, Sven


Over a period of seven months, the temperature and the emissions from six cylindrical and two rectangular stored bales containing waste for later use as fuel were measured. The bales were kept at two different ranges of temperatures: 30-35degreesC and 20-25degreesC respectively. It was found that only the rectangular bales showed significant production of CO2. The increase of emission for one of the rectangular bales kept at 30-35degreesC, was 0.246% vol. CO2 per day for a 2-week period, after which there was a decrease of CO2 concentrations at a rate of 0.0224% vol. during a 32-week period. The other rectangular bale kept at 20-25degreesC, exhibited a similar trend. However, the increase of CO2 concentrations was less at a rate of 0.0259% vol. per day during a 8-week period, after which the CO2 emission decreased at a rate of 0.0224% vol. per day during a 25-week period. All the bales exhibited aerobic decomposition in the sampling point. However on measuring the leachate concentrations, it was evident that the bales were actually in the equivalent acid-generating phase of a young landfill. The temperature inside the bales did not increase higher than the ambient air temperature.


baling; waste fuels; emissions; leachate; waste decomposition; oxygen consumption; CO2; emission; wmr 536-4

Published in

Waste Management and Research
2003, Volume: 21, number: 4, pages: 309-317

      SLU Authors

    • Nimmermark, Sven

      • Department of Agricultural Biosystems and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Environmental Management
    Other Environmental Biotechnology

    Publication identifier


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