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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2003

Surface chemical composition and morphology of ITC kraft fibres as determined by XPS and FE-SEM

Duchesne I, Daniel G, Van Leerdam GC, Basta J


The surface chemical composition and morphology of single fibres from three isothermal cooked Norway spruce kraft pulps (kappa numbers 9.7, 19.4, 30.5) were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field emission-scanning electron microscopy. Two methods of fibre preparation-air drying and rapid freezing followed by freeze drying-were compared. Freeze-dried earlywood and latewood fibres had similar surface morphological and chemical compositions. No middle lamellae remnants were observed from any of the pulps, suggesting total removal of this intercellular layer at the pulping stage studied Although surface enrichment of lignin (compared to the bulk lignin) was observed, angle-dependent XPS measurements showed no evidence for deposition of a thin outer layer. Preparative methods had a very important impact on the surface chemical composition of the fibres. Air-dried fibre bundles showed a lower O/C ratio (i.e. higher surface lignin content) compared to freeze-dried fibre bundles. This work emphasizes the importance of preparation for both the surface chemical and morphological characterization of kraft pulp fibres

Published in

Journal of Pulp and Paper Science
2003, Volume: 29, number: 3, pages: 71-76

    SLU Authors

    • Daniel, Geoffrey

      • Department of Forest Products, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Forest Science

    Permanent link to this page (URI)