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Research article2013Peer reviewedOpen access

Mapping the Relationship of Inter-Village Variation in Agroforestry Tree Survival with Social and Ecological Characteristics: The Case of the Vi Agroforestry Project, Mara Region, Tanzania

Johansson, Karl-Erik; Axelsson, Robert; Kimanzu, Ngolia


Agroforestry practices can improve the adaptive capacity and resilience of local farming and subsistence systems while providing livelihood benefits to households. However, scaling up of agroforestry technology has often proved difficult. Many studies have been carried out to explain the lack of tangible impact, based mainly on formal household/farm surveys comparing characteristics of non-adopters with that of adopters. In this study, we mapped the relationship between agroforestry tree survival in villages that were a part of the Vi Agroforestry project in the Mara region, Tanzania with key social-ecological variables. A random sample of 21 households from each of 89 investigated project villages was used. The proportion of households with surviving agroforestry trees, varied from 10%-90% among villages. Social and ecological differences between villages were important explanations to this variation. Variables related to the project and its operations explained most of the inter-village variation in households with few surviving trees. To encourage the majority of village households to practice agroforestry their perceptions of tree ownership and the benefit of agroforestry were additional key factors to the project showing the importance of socio-cultural issues to the households' decisions to continue beyond the initial tree planting and testing phase.


dissemination; adaptation; adoption; livelihood; sustainable development; poverty alleviation; agro-ecological resilience

Published in

2013, Volume: 5, number: 12, pages: 5171-5194
Publisher: MDPI AG

      SLU Authors

    • Sustainable Development Goals

      SDG1 No poverty
      SDG11 Sustainable cities and communities

      UKÄ Subject classification

      Agricultural Science

      Publication identifier


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