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Review article2010Peer reviewedOpen access

The Costs of Meeting the Environmental Objectives for the Baltic Sea: A Review of the Literature

Elofsson, Katarina


The environmental targets of the recently agreed Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) targets are likely associated with a considerable cost, which motivates a search for low-cost policies. The following review shows there is a substantial literature on cost-efficient nutrient reduction strategies, including suggestions regarding low-cost abatement, but actual policies at international and national scale tend to be considerably more expensive due to lack of instruments that ensure a cost-efficient allocation of abatement across countries and sectors. Economic research on the costs of reducing hazardous substances and oil spill damages in the Baltic Sea is not available, but lessons from the international literature suggest that resources could be used more efficiently if appropriate analysis is undertaken. Common to these pollution problems is the need to ensure that all countries in the region are provided with positive incentives to implement international agreements.


Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP); Costs; Review; Eutrophication; Hazardous substances

Published in

AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment
2010, Volume: 39, number: 1, pages: 49-58
Publisher: SPRINGER

    Sustainable Development Goals

    Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
    Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
    Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Environmental Management
    Fish and Aquacultural Science

    Publication identifier


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