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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2015

Evaluation of temperature sum models and timing of Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae) wood-chip extract to control apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea Klug) in Sweden

Sjöberg, Patrick; Swiergiel, Weronika; Neupane, Dipesh; Lennartsson, Emmy; Thierfelder, Tomas; Tasin, Marco; Rämert, Birgitta


Apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea Klug) is a serious pest in European organic apple production. They hatch during a short period only, making correct timing of control measures crucial. Swedish organic growers have requested a strategy for optimal timing of the Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae) extract against the apple sawfly. The aim of this study was, therefore, to develop methods to predict the timing of Q. amara control in Sweden. A temperature sum model for timely placement of monitoring or mass-trapping sticky traps was validated for Swedish conditions. The average emergence of sawflies occurred at 169 degree days (SD = 20) counted from March 15 (threshold temperature 4 A degrees C). The difference in emergence from existing first flight model of average and maximum 9 and 39 degree days (1 and 9 calendar days) was found acceptable. Accumulated oviposition of 85 % at full bloom (BBCH 65) suggests that mass trapping and monitoring could stop at this time. This is supported by a tendency of decreased trap catches during that period. Three application times for Q. amara were compared: (A) at petal fall (BBCH 67), (B) at a date calculated using female trap catch numbers and temperature sums, and (C) prior to peak egg hatch observed in the field. All treatments resulted in significantly lower percentage of damaged apples compared to the unsprayed control, with significantly less damage (1.3 %) in plots treated according to method (B). The results provide information on adult phenology and methods that could be used to determine timing of mass trapping and insecticide application against the apple sawfly.


IPM; Organic; Forecasting; Monitoring

Published in

Journal of Pest Science
2015, Volume: 88, number: 2, pages: 301-310