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Research article2014Peer reviewedOpen access

Performance Payments for Groups: The Case of Carnivore Conservation in Northern Sweden

Zabel, Astrid; Engel, Stefanie; Bostedt, Kjell Göran


This paper presents a first empirical assessment of carnivore conservation under a performance payment scheme. In Sweden, reindeer herder villages are paid based on the number of lynx (lynx lynx) and wolverine (gulo gulo) offspring certified on their pastures. The villages decide on the internal payment distribution. It is generally assumed that benefit distribution rules are exogenous. We investigate them as an endogenous decision. The data reveals that villages' group size has a direct negative effect on conservation outcomes and an indirect positive effect which impacts conservation outcomes through the benefit distribution rule. This result revises the collective action hypothesis on purely negative effects of group size.


Performance payments; Group payments; Wildlife conservation; Empirical policy assessment; Sweden; Lynx; Wolverine

Published in

Environmental and Resource Economics
2014, Volume: 59, number: 4, pages: 613-631

    Sustainable Development Goals

    Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Other Biological Topics

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