Skip to main content
SLU publication database (SLUpub)

Research article2014Peer reviewedOpen access

Mitochondrial DNA haplotypes indicate two postglacial re-colonization routes of the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus through northern Europe to Scandinavia

Mayer, François; Björklund, Niklas; Wallén, Johan; Långström, Bo; Lundhagen, Anna


Species in northern Europe re-colonized the region after the last glacial maximum via several routes, which could have lingering signatures in current intraspecific trait variation. The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, occurs across Europe, and biological differences have been found between southern and northern Scandinavian populations. However, the postglacial history of I. typographus in Scandinavia has not been previously studied at a fine geographical scale. Therefore, we collected specimens across northern Europe and analysed the genetic variation in a quite large mitochondrial fragment (698 bp). A high genetic diversity was found in some of the most northern populations, in the Baltic States, Gotland and central Europe. Detected genetic and phylogeographic structures suggest that I. typographus re-colonized Scandinavia via two pathways, one from the northeast and one from the south. These findings are consistent with the re-colonization history of its host plant, Picea abies. However, we observed low haplotype and nucleotide diversity in southern Scandinavian populations of I. typographus, indicating that (unlike P. abies) it did not disperse across the Baltic Sea in multiple events. Further, the divergence among Scandinavian populations was shallow, conflicting with a scenario where I. typographus expanded concurrently with its host plant from a 'cryptic refugium' in the northwest.


Spruce bark beetle; expansion; phylogeography; glacial refugium

Published in

Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research
2014, Volume: 52, number: 4, pages: 285-292