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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2014

Analysis of reference gene stability after Israeli acute paralysis virus infection in bumblebees Bombus terrestris

Niu, Jinzhi; Cappelle, Kaat; Rodrigues De Miranda, Joachim; Smagghe, Guy; Meeus, Ivan


To date, there are no validated internal reference genes for the normalization of RT-qPCR data from virus infection experiments with pollinating insects. In this study we evaluated the stability of five candidate internal reference genes: elongation factor-1 -alpha (ELF1 alpha), peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA), 60S ribosomal protein L23 (RPL23), TATA-binding protein (TBP) and polyubiquitin (UBI), in relation to Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) infection of Bombus terrestris. We investigated the stability of these genes: in whole bodies and individual body parts, as well as in whole bodies collected at different time intervals after infection with IAPV. Our data identified PPIA as the single, most-optimal internal reference gene and the combination of PPAI-RPL23-UBI as a fully-sufficient multiple internal reference genes set for IAPV infection experiments in B. terrestris. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Gene expression; Bee virus; RT-qPCR; Dicistroviruses; qBase(PLUS)

Published in

Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
2014, volume: 115, pages: 76-79

Authors' information

Niu, Jinzhi
Ghent University
Cappelle, Kaat
Ghent University
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology
Smagghe, Guy
Ghent University
Meeus, Ivan
Ghent University

UKÄ Subject classification

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Publication Identifiers


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