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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2014

Effects of timing, duration, and intensity of simulated browsing on Scots pine growth and stem quality

Wallgren, Märtha; Bergquist, Jonas; Bergström, Roger; Eriksson, Stefan


This study examines a large number of structural and growth-related responses of young Scots pine in relation to simulated browsing from large herbivores. We combined different modes of intensity, timing, and duration of clipping for nine consecutive years from 2000 to 2008. Data on tree responses were collected yearly during this period, as well as in 2011, and were analyzed using ordination techniques and generalized linear models. A key result demonstrated is the serious effects of clipping on the youngest pines. Mortality was high when clipping started the first year, indicating that the trees are vulnerable at that stage, but after that increasing intensity and duration of clipping were the main causes of mortality. Among the different treatment factors, intensity of clipping had the largest influence on altering the final growth responses, some of the quality responses, and mortality. Timing of clipping was the most important factor for explaining the occurrence of the majority of responses related to stem structure. Duration of clipping had the largest effect on the responses that included repeated-measures data, such as height development and number of stems. We discuss the long-term consequences of browsing for the trees and the implications for forest management.


moose; roe deer; browsing; Scots pine

Published in

Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research
2014, volume: 29, number: 8, pages: 734-746

Authors' information

Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Skogforsk
Bergquist, Jonas
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Unit for Field-based Forest Research
Bergquist, Jonas
Swedish Forest Agency
Bergström, Roger
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Unit for Field-based Forest Research

Associated SLU-program

SLU Network Plant Protection

UKÄ Subject classification

Forest Science

Publication Identifiers


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