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Research article2014Peer reviewedOpen access

Comparison of sampling methodologies for nutrient monitoring in streams: uncertainties, costs and implications for mitigation

Audet, Joachim; Martinsen, L.; Hasler, B.; de Jonge, H.; Karydi, E.; Ovesen, N. B.; Kronvang, B.


Eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems caused by excess concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus may have harmful consequences for biodiversity and poses a health risk to humans via water supplies. Reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus losses to aquatic ecosystems involves implementation of costly measures, and reliable monitoring methods are therefore essential to select appropriate mitigation strategies and to evaluate their effects. Here, we compare the performances and costs of three methodologies for the monitoring of nutrients in rivers: grab sampling; time-proportional sampling; and passive sampling using flow-proportional samplers. Assuming hourly time-proportional sampling to be the best estimate of the "true" nutrient load, our results showed that the risk of obtaining wrong total nutrient load estimates by passive samplers is high despite similar costs as the time-proportional sampling. Our conclusion is that for passive samplers to provide a reliable monitoring alternative, further development is needed. Grab sampling was the cheapest of the three methods and was more precise and accurate than passive sampling. We conclude that although monitoring employing time-proportional sampling is costly, its reliability precludes unnecessarily high implementation expenses.

Published in

Hydrology and Earth System Sciences
2014, Volume: 18, number: 11, pages: 4721-4731 Publisher: COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH

    Sustainable Development Goals

    SDG6 Clean water and sanitation
    SDG15 Life on land

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources

    Publication identifier


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