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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2014

Trafficking modulator TENin1 inhibits endocytosis, causes endomembrane protein accumulation at the pre-vacuolar compartment and impairs gravitropic response in Arabidopsis thaliana

Paudyal, Rupesh; Jamaluddin, Adam; Warren, James P.; Doyle, Siamsa; Robert, Stephanie; Warriner, Stuart L.; Baker, Alison


Auxin gradients are established and maintained by polarized distribution of auxin transporters that undergo constitutive endocytic recycling from the PM (plasma membrane) and are essential for the gravitropic response in plants. The present study characterizes an inhibitor of endomembrane protein trafficking, TE1 (trafficking and endocytosis inhibitor 1/TENin1) that reduces gravitropic root bending in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Short-term TE1 treatment causes accumulation of PM proteins, including the BR (brassinosteroid) receptor BRI1 (BR insensitive 1), PIP2a (PM intrinsic protein 2a) and the auxin transporter PIN2 (PIN-FORMED 2) in a PVC (pre-vacuolar related compartment), which is sensitive to BFA (Brefeldin A). This compound inhibits endocytosis from the PM and promotes trafficking to the vacuole, consistent with inhibition of retrieval of proteins to the TGN (trans-Golgi network) from the PVC and the PM. However, trafficking of newly synthesized proteins to the PM is unaffected. The short-term protein trafficking inhibition and long-term effect on plant growth and survival caused by TE1 were fully reversible upon drug washout. Structure activity relationship studies revealed that only minor modifications were possible without loss of biological activity. Diversity in Arabidopsis ecotypes was also exploited to identify two Arabidopsis accessions that display reduced sensitivity to TE1. This compound and the resistant Arabidopsis accessions may be used as a resource in future studies to better understand endomembrane trafficking in plants.


chemical biology; endocytosis; gravitropism; PIN-FORMED protein (PIN protein); trafficking and endocytosis inhibitor 1/TENin1 (TE1); trans-Golgi network (TGN)

Published in

Biochemical Journal
2014, Volume: 460, number: 2, pages: 177-185