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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2015

Effects of Unfermented and Fermented Whole Grain Rye Crisp Breads Served as Part of a Standardized Breakfast, on Appetite and Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Responses: A Randomized Cross-over Trial

Johansson, Daniel; Lee, Isabella; Risérus, Ulf; Langton, Maud; Landberg, Rikard


BackgroundWhole grain rye products have been shown to increase satiety and elicit lower postprandial insulin response without a corresponding change in glucose response compared with soft refined wheat bread. The underlying mechanisms for these effects have not been fully determined The primary aim of the study was to investigate if whole grain rye crisp bread compared to refined wheat crisp bread, elected beneficial effects on appetite and postprandial insulin response, similarly as for other rye products.MethodsIn a randomized cross-over trial, 23 healthy volunteers, aged 27-70 years, BMI 18-31.4 kg/m(2), were served a standardized breakfast with unfermented whole grain rye crisp bread (uRCB), fermented whole grain rye crisp bread (RCB) or refined wheat crisp bread (WCB), Appetite was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) until 4 h after breakfast. Postprandial glucose and insulin were measured at 0-230 min. Breads were chemically characterized including macronutrients, energy, dietary fiber components, and amino acid composition, and microstructure was characterized with light microscopy.ResultsReported fullness was 16% higher (P< 0.001), and hunger 11% and 12% lower (P< 0.05) after ingestion of uRCB and RCB, respectively, compared with WCB. Postprandial glucose response did not differ significantly between treatments. Postprandial insulin was 10% lower (P< 0.007) between 0-120 min but not significantly lower between 0-230 min for RCB compared with WCB. uRCB induced 13% (P< 0.002) and 17% (P< 0.001) lower postprandial insulin response between 0-230 min compared with RCB and WCB respectively.ConclusionWhole grain rye crisp bread induces higher satiety and lower insulin response compared with refined wheat crisp bread. Microstructural characteristics, dietary fiber content and composition are probable contributors to the increased satiety after ingestion of rye crisp breads. Higher insulin secretion after ingestion of RCB and WCB compared with uRCB may be due to differences in fiber content and composition, and higher availability of insulinogenic branched chain amino acids.


rye bread, glucose response, insulin response, microstructure

Published in

2015, volume: 10, number: 3, article number: e0122241

Authors' information

Johansson, Daniel
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Food Science
Lee, Isabella
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Food Science
Risérus, Ulf
Uppsala University
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Food Science
Landberg, Rikard
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Food Science
Landberg, Rikard
Karolinska Institute

UKÄ Subject classification

Food Science
Nutrition and Dietetics

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