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Research article2016Peer reviewed

Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Symptoms Among Milkers and Dairy Farm Characteristics in Sweden and Germany

Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Jakob, Martina


Abstract Objectives International studies have shown that musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) and disorders (MSD) are common among dairy farm milkers. Although dairy production is diverse it has so far not been possible to explain the high risk by production parameters. Two national studies carried out under similar conditions were the incentive to merge the data and increase the sample size. Methods The Standardized Nordic Questionnaire was used to assess MSS prevalence among 92 Swedish and 116 German male and female milkers. Results and Conclusions Eighty-four and 85% of the Swedish and German milkers reported MSS in at least one body part. Highest prevalence was reported in the lower back, shoulder and neck. Females showed a significantly higher risk of MSS. Apart from that small significant influence of MSS was found for other risk factors. Our findings indicate that technical and organizational modifications of the work place design in milking parlors are needed.


Agriculture; dairy farmers; ergonomic work factor; milking; musculoskeletal disorders; nordic questionnaire; physical exposure

Published in

Journal of Agromedicine
2016, Volume: 21, number: 1, pages: 43-55

    Sustainable Development Goals

    SDG5 Gender equality

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Agricultural Occupational Health and Safety

    Publication identifier


    Permanent link to this page (URI)