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Licentiate thesis, 2016

Supply and value chain analyses of warqe food products in relation to post-harvest losses

Chaka, Ashanafi


Post-harvest losses are a global problem and are of critical importance in food-insecure countries such as Ethiopia. Losses of root and tuber crops are known to be high in developing countries, where many of the population are dependent on these crops. Warqe (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) is a staple crop in Ethiopia. This banana-like plant is used as a food, mainly in the form of the products kocho, bulla and amicho, and also in non-food applications. The supply and value chain of warqe foods and associated post-harvest losses were analysed in this thesis and hotspots for losses were identified, based on two surveys conducted in Ethiopia in 2013 and 2015. The first survey targeted nine groups of farmers, four groups of traders and four research institutions throughout the country. Based on the results, the second survey concentrated on analysing two supply routes to central market. A total of 522 respondents, including producers, food processors, traders, transporters and consumers, were randomly selected for that survey. Value chain theory was employed to analyse the value chain, while post-harvest losses were assessed by adopting the Commodity System Assessment Methodology (CSAM). The results indicated that farmers, collectors, processors, wholesalers, retailers and consumers are the principal value chain actors. In addition, some transporters and open market dealers are involved in the supply chain and logistics process. Product and information flows between actors in both the supply and value chains were found to be weak. The performance of the kocho value chain was not efficient and about 45.3% of the total marketed product of kocho and 45.6% of bulla was lost along the supply chain. The highest kocho (24.0%) and bulla (28.8%) losses were observed at retailer and processor level, respectively. Poor processing methods, use of perishable packaging material, poor transportation and inappropriate storage and market conditions were the main reasons for the losses. To minimise losses, it is important to work on value addition to warqe foods and improve processing, storage and packaging. Shared warehouses need to be built around producers and near marketplaces. Farmers and bulla processors could be supported by providing credit, developing and supplying improved warqe varieties, advisory services, market facilities and market information.


Warqe; kocho; bulla; value and supply chain analyses; logistics; post-harvest losses; Ethiopia

Published in

Report / Department of Energy and Tecnology, SLU
2016, number: 089
ISBN: 978-91-576-9389-1, eISBN: 978-91-576-9390-7
Publisher: Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Authors' information

Chaka, Ashanafi (Chaka, Ashanafi)
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Energy and Technology

UKÄ Subject classification

Transport Systems and Logistics
Food Science

URI (permanent link to this page)