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Doctoral thesis, 2016

Decomposition of soil organic matter under a changing climate

Bölscher, Tobias

Abstract

Soil organic matter is the largest carbon (C) pool in the terrestrial C cycle, and soil CO₂ emissions surpass anthropogenic emissions from fossil fuel combustion by a factor of nine. Therefore, mechanisms controlling C stabilisation in soils and its feedback to climate change are widely debated. During decomposition, microbial substrate-use efficiency is an important property because it determines the allocation of substrate C to biosynthesis and respiratory losses. High efficiency values indicate that C primarily remains in soils while low efficiency implies that C is primarily lost into the atmosphere. Despite empirical evidence that efficiency is temperature sensitive, traditional Earth system models treat this property as a constant. The aim of this thesis was to improve our mechanistic understanding of drivers regulating substrate-use efficiency with special consideration to climate change. It investigated the impacts of (i) temperature, (ii) microbial community composition and (iii) substrate quality on substrate-use efficiency. Within the thesis, a microbial energetics approach was applied and further developed using isothermal calorimetry. Further, the thesis compared common approaches for measuring microbial substrate-use efficiency, and the implications of the resultant empirical data for projected C stocks were tested using a modelling approach. Substrate-use efficiency was generally temperature sensitive and decreased with increasing temperature. The observed temperature responses were non-linear and varied across land use management systems. The changes in substrate-use efficiency with temperature were driven rather by changes in microbial physiology than by shifts in active microbial communities. Nevertheless, fungi and Gram-negative bacteria tended towards relatively higher efficiencies. Efficiencies varied among utilised substrates, but substrate quality per se was a poor proxy for efficiency. Projected losses from soil C stocks varied across land use management systems and were up to 39 % and 15 % for grassland and forest systems, respectively. Results from the modelling approach confirmed that substrate-use efficiency is one of the factors to which soil C stocks react most sensitively. Findings from this thesis emphasise the importance of furthering our understanding of substrate-use efficiency for reliable climate projections.

Keywords

soil organic matter; substrate-use efficiency; temperature; land use; microbial community; substrate quality; isothermal calorimetry; carbon modelling

Published in

Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae
2016, number: 2016:85
ISBN: 978-91-576-8672-5, eISBN: 978-91-576-8673-2
Publisher: Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Authors' information

Bölscher, Tobias
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Chemistry

UKÄ Subject classification

Soil Science
Climate Research

URI (permanent link to this page)

https://res.slu.se/id/publ/77403