- Department of Biosystems and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
The health benefits of organically grown whole grain wheat are derived from various nutritional compounds such as dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins and phytochemicals, while baking quality is influenced by the protein content and composition. Genetic improvement and production of wheat to increase the amounts of the nutritional compounds therefore enhance the health benefits. Also, the baking quality of organic wheat can be improved by increasing protein quality of the grain. This study screened a large collection of organically grown winter and spring wheat genotypes from six groups (selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars) for different nutritionally relevant compounds such as, minerals, tocochromanols (vitamin E) and heavy metals. The genotypes were also screened for protein quality related to bread-making performance. There was a wide variation in grain concentrations of minerals, total tocochromanols, heavy metals and protein fractions between the six genotype groups, indicating that there is a great potential to use genotypes for the production and the development of specific wheat genotypes with health-promoting and bread-making properties for future breeding programmes. Primitive wheat had higher amounts of most minerals studied, a higher percentage of tocotrienols in total tocochromanols (74%) and a lower amount of cadmium in the wheat grain than the other genotype groups. Around 70% of the recommended daily intake (RDI) of most minerals and up to 24% of the RDI of vitamin E could be obtained by consuming the organically produced whole grain wheat genotypes tested. Tocochromanol content and vitamin E activity are known to be lowered by heating, so organically produced wheat might be a good source of minerals and tocochromanols since organically produced wheat is more commonly consumed as whole or sprouted grain as compared to conventionally produced wheat. There was also a wide variation in the amount and size distribution of polymeric proteins (ASPP), mixing parameters and structural properties between the six genotype groups investigated. Genotypes with a high protein concentration and a high percentage of unextractable polymeric proteins in total polymeric proteins (%UPP) might be helpful in improving the bread-making quality of organic wheat.
Organic wheat genotypes; nutritionally relevant compounds; minerals; vitamin E; tocochromanols; protein polymerisation; mixing behaviour
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae
2012, number: 2012:18
Publisher: Dept. of Agrosystems, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Genetics and Breeding