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Doctoral thesis, 2012

Rhizobacteria associated to Vitis vinifera and their effect on the control of Xiphinema index, Meloidogyne ethiopica and Vitis growth

Aballay, Erwin

Abstract

Plant-parasitic nematodes are one of the most important pests affecting the growth of vineyards due to the destruction of new roots. Several species are associated with this problem, the most important being the ectoparasite Xiphinema index and the endoparasite Meloidogyne ethiopica. The search for new pest and disease control methods based on bioantagonist microorganisms is an important aspect of modern agriculture and the development of tools based on the use of rhizobacteria is becoming a widely evaluated alternative. The present study on suppressive soils started with a survey undertaken in productive Chilean vineyards to explore the younger roots of grapevines and identify the presence of rhizobacteria. More than 1800 soils were surveyed and a set of 11 vineyards were selected and considered suitable for bacteria isolation, as they showed low densities of plant-parasitic nematodes. A total of 400 bacterial isolates in 25 genera were obtained using tryptic soy broth agar and identified with fatty acid profiling. Two of the most frequently isolated species were Pseudomonas putida (35.1%) and P. fluorescens (6.1%). The effect of these isolates on the parasitism and reproduction of X. index was assessed through assays using potted vine plants (cv. Thompson Seedless) and a bacterial suspension containing 1×106 CFU/mL. Some isolates from Bacillus megaterium, B. brevis, B. mycoides, B. sphaericus, B. thuringiensis, Pseudomonas corrugata, P. putida, P. alcaligenes, P. savastanoi, P. fluorescens, P. pseudoalcaligenes, P. viridiflava, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Serratia plymuthica, Cytophaga johnsonae, Rahnella aquatilis, Stenotrophomonas sp., Variovorax paradoxus and Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens reduced root damage and suppressed populations. Isolates of B. brevis, Comamonas acidovorans, B. megaterium, Pantoea agglomerans and P. savastanoi increased plant growth or root weight, but did not control nematodes. Most of the culture filtrates obtained from isolates from four vineyards were effective in killing X. index and decreasing egg hatching, which was not related to damage or population control. It was estimated that 89, 32 and 16% of the isolates were effective against X. index under supernatant conditions, in potted plants growing in sterile substrate and in potted plants growing in field soil, respectively. Sixteen bacterial isolates previously assessed were also evaluated on M. ethiopica in vine cv. Chardonnay. Seven isolates (Serratia marcescens, C. acidovorans, P. agglomerans, Sphingobacterium spiritivorum, B. mycoides, Alcaligenes piechaudii and S. plymuthica) decreased damage or reproduction, showing that different species of nematodes can respond differently to a particular isolate.

Keywords

Rhizobacteria; Plant-parasitic nematodes; Biological Control

Published in

Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae
2012, number: 2012:78
ISBN: 978-91-576-7725-9
Publisher: Dept. of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Authors' information

Aballay, Erwin
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology

UKÄ Subject classification

Agricultural Science

URI (permanent link to this page)

https://res.slu.se/id/publ/79090