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Review article - Peer-reviewed, 2016

Targeting human fear of large carnivores - Many ideas but few known effects

Johansson, Maria; Alvares Ferreira, Ines; Stoen, Ole-Gunnar; Frank, Jens; Flykt, Anders


This paper reviews the peer-reviewed scientific literature on interventions aimed to reduce human fear of large carnivores in human-large carnivore conflicts. Based on psychological theories, a wide definition of fear was adopted, including fear as an emotion, as a perception and as an attitude. Four major categories of interventions were identified: information and education, exposure to animal and habitat, collaboration and participation, and financial incentives. Each of these categories may have a potential to reduce fear responses. The scientific literature on the effect of interventions addressing human fear of large carnivores is scarce and partly contradictory, which makes it difficult for wildlife managers to rely on current research when designing appropriate interventions. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Large carnivores; Human fear; Literature review; Intervention

Published in

Biological Conservation
2016, Volume: 201, pages: 261-269

        Associated SLU-program

        Wildlife Damage Centre

        Sustainable Development Goals

        SDG4 Quality education

        UKÄ Subject classification


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