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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2016

Effect of Breed on Plasma Endothelin-1 Concentration, Plasma Renin Activity, and Serum Cortisol Concentration in Healthy Dogs

Höglund, Katja; Lequarré, A-S.; Bersås Ljungvall, Ingrid; Merveille, A-C.; Wiberg, M.; Hanås, Sofia; Gouni, V; Lundgren Willesen, J.; Hanås, Sofia; Wess, Gerhard; Mejer Sørensen, L.; Tiret, L.; Kierczak, Marcin; Forsberg, Simon; Seppälä, E.; Lindblad-Toh, K.; Lohi, Hannes; Chetboul, Valerie; Fredholm, Merete; Häggström, Jens;


BackgroundThere are breed differences in several blood variables in healthy dogs.ObjectiveInvestigate breed variation in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration.AnimalsFive-hundred and thirty-one healthy dogs of 9 breeds examined at 5 centers (2-4 breeds/center).MethodsProspective observational study. Circulating concentrations of ET-1 and cortisol, and renin activity, were measured using commercially available assays. Absence of organ-related or systemic disease was ensured by thorough clinical investigations, including blood pressure measurement, echocardiography, ECG, blood and urine analysis.ResultsMedian ET-1 concentration was 1.29 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.97-1.82) pg/mL, median cortisol concentration 46.0 (IQR, 29.0-80.8) nmol/L, and median renin activity 0.73 (IQR, 0.48-1.10) ng/mL/h in all dogs. Overall, breed differences were found in ET-1 and cortisol concentrations, and renin activity (P < .0001 for all). Pair-wise comparisons between breeds differed in 67% of comparisons for ET-1, 22% for cortisol, and 19% for renin activity, respectively. Within centers, breed differences were found at 5/5 centers for ET-1, 4/5 centers for cortisol, and 2/5 centers for renin activity. Newfoundlands had highest median ET-1 concentration, 3 times higher than Cavalier King Charles Spaniels, Doberman Pinschers, and Dachshunds. Median renin activity was highest in Dachshunds, twice the median value in Newfoundlands and Boxers. Median cortisol concentration was highest in Finnish Lapphunds, almost 3 times higher than in Boxers.Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceBreed variation might be important to take into consideration when interpreting test results in clinical studies.


Biomarker; Breed variation; Canine; Vasoactive

Published in

Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

2016, volume: 30, number: 2, pages: 566-573

Authors' information

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry (AFB)
Lequarré, A-S.
University of Liège
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences
Merveille, A-C.
University of Liège
Wiberg, M.
University of Helsinki
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences
Gouni, V
Lundgren Willesen, J.
University of Copenhagen
Evidensia Animal Clinic Västerås
Wess, Gerhard
Mejer Sørensen, L.
University of Copenhagen
Tiret, L.
University of Paris-Est
Kierczak, Marcin
Uppsala University
Forsberg, Simon
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences
Seppälä, E.
University of Helsinki
Lindblad-Toh, K.
Lohi, Hannes
Chetboul, Valerie
Fredholm, Merete
University of Copenhagen
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences

UKÄ Subject classification

Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems

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