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Conference paper - Peer-reviewed, 2016

Towards the development of landscape democracy: a theoretical contribution

Calderon, Camilo; Butler, Andrew


Participatory approaches have gained recognition through the European Landscape Convention (Council of Europe 2000), yet still remain questionable within landscape planning. Practitioners struggle to operationalise landscape as dynamic, holistic and democratic as defined in the ELC. This is due to: 1) weakness of substantive theory in landscape planning, with practice engaging with an impoverished understanding of landscape; and 2) a focus on normative ideals of how participation ought to be as opposed to the realpolitik of these practices. As such, practitioners fail to handle the diverse, dynamic values experienced in landscape, and the conflicts and power relations of participatory processes. By forwarding an understanding of the dynamics of landscape planning, and the differences, conflicts and power relations that are present in participatory processes, the paper develops a theorisation of landscape as a democratic entity.


Landscape democracy. conflict, power

Published in

Book title: Landscape values: place and praxis
ISBN: 978-1-908358-43-1
Publisher: Centre for Landscape Studies


Landscape values: place and praxis