Antibiotics degradation in soil: A case of clindamycin, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole and their transformation products
Koba, Olga; Golovko, Oksana; Kodesova, Radka; Fer, Miroslav; Grabic, Roman
Twelve different soil types that represent the soil compartments of the Czech Republic were fortified with three antibiotics (clindamycin (CLI), sulfamethoxazole (SUL), and trimethoprim (TRI)) to investigate their fate. Five metabolites (clindamycin sulfoxide (CSO), hydroxy clindamycin sulfoxide (HCSO), S-(SDC) and N-demethyl clindamycin (NDC), N-4-acetyl sulfamethoxazole (N(4)AS), and hydroxy trimethoprim (HTR)) were detected and identified using HPLC/HRMS and HRPS in the soil matrix in this study. The identities of CSO and N(4)AS were confirmed using commercially available reference standards.The parent compounds degraded in all soils. Almost all of the metabolites have been shown to be persistent in soils, with the exception of N(4)AS, which was formed and degraded completely within 23 days of exposure. The rate of degradation mainly depended on the soil properties.The PCA results showed a high dependence between the soil type and behaviour of the pharmaceutical metabolites.The mentioned metabolites can be formed in soils, and the most persistent ones may be transported to the ground water and environmental water bodies. Because no information on the effects of those metabolites on living organism are available, more studies should be performed in the future to predict the risk to the environment. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pharmaceuticals; Metabolites; Liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry; Soil compartment; Kinetic
2017, Volume: 220, number: Part B, pages: 1251-1263
Publisher: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
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