Skip to main content
SLU publication database (SLUpub)

Research article2017Peer reviewedOpen access

The revealed preferences of Baltic Sea governments: Goals, policy instruments, and implementation of nutrient abatement measures

Elofsson, Katarina; von Bromssen, Claudia


Nitrogen and phosphorus loads are considered a major reason for the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. Until now, most of the abatement has been made at point sources while the implementation of policies for nonpoint sources has not led to equally large reductions in emissions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of how nutrient abatement measures are implemented by countries in the agricultural sector of the Baltic Sea region. We investigate how goal setting, policy instrument choice, and the level of implementation is determined by characteristics of the abatement measure as well as socio-economic characteristics of the country where it is implemented. Econometric analysis of a cross-sectional data set suggests that income, institutional capacity, and economies of scope in abatement and enforcement are important determinants of policies developed and their implementation. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Agri-environmental policy; Baltic Sea; Determinants; Nitrogen; Phosphorus; Policy evaluation

Published in

Marine Pollution Bulletin
2017, Volume: 118, number: 1-2, pages: 188-196 Publisher: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD