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Research article2017Peer reviewed

Characterization of polyurethane foam (PUF) and sorbent impregnated PUF (SIP) disk passive air samplers for measuring organophosphate flame retardants

Abdollahi, Atousa; Eng, Anita; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Ahrens, Lutz; Shoeib, Mahiba; Parnis, J. Mark; Harner, Tom

Abstract

This study aimed to characterize the uptake of organophosphate esters (OPEs) by polyurethane foam (PUF) and sorbent-impregnated polyurethane foam (SIP) disk passive air samplers (PAS). Atmospheric OPE concentrations were monitored with high-volume active air samplers (HV-AAS) that were co-deployed with passive air samplers. Samples were analyzed for tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tri(phenyl) phosphate (TPhP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), and tris(2,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP). The mean concentration of Sigma OPES in air was 2650 pg/m(3) for the HV-AAS. Sampling rates and the passive sampler medium (PSM)-air partition coefficient (Kpsm-Air) were calculated for individual OPEs. The average calculated sampling rates (R) for the four OPEs were 3.6 +/- 1.2 and 4.2 +/- 2.0 m(3)/day for the PUF and SIP disks, respectively, and within the range of the recommended default value of 4 +/- 2 m(3)/day. Since most of the OPEs remained in the linear uptake phase during the study, COSMO-RS solvation theory and an oligomer-based model were used to estimate KpuF-Air for the OPEs. The estimated values of log KPUF-Air were 7.45 (TCIPP), 935 (TPhP), 8.44 (TCEP), and 9.67 (TDCIPP). Finally, four configurations of the PUF and SIP disks were tested by adjusting the distance of the gap opening between the upper and lower domes of the sampler housing: i.e. 2 cm, 1 cm, no gap and 1 cm overlap. The sampling rate did not differ significantly between these four configurations (p < 0.05). Crown Copyright (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords

Organophosphate esters; PUF disk; SIP disk; COSMO-RS

Published in

Chemosphere
2017, Volume: 167, pages: 212-219
Publisher: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD

    UKÄ Subject classification

    Analytical Chemistry
    Other Chemistry Topics

    Publication identifier

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.09.111

    Permanent link to this page (URI)

    https://res.slu.se/id/publ/87010