Single and joint ecotoxicity data estimation of organic UV filters and nanomaterials toward selected aquatic organisms. Urban groundwater risk assessment
Molins-Delgado, Daniel; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Silvia Diaz-Cruz, M.; Barcelo, Damia
The hazardous potential of organic UV filters (UV-Fs) is becoming an issue of great concern due to the widespread application of these compounds in most daily-use goods, such as hygiene and beauty products. Nanomaterials (NMs) have also been used in personal care products (PCPs) for many years. Nowadays, both classes of chemicals are considered environmental emerging contaminants. Despite some studies performed in vitro and in vivo reported adverse effects of many UV-Fs on the normal development of organisms, there is scarce data regarding acute and chronic toxicity. The aim of the present study was to determine the EC50 values of selected UV-Fs using standardised toxicity assays on three aquatic species i.e. Daphnia magna, Raphidocelis subcapitata and Vibrio fischeri. EC50 values obtained were in the mg I-1 range for all the species. The estimated toxicity data allowed us to assess the environmental risk posed by selected UV-Fs in urban groundwater from Barcelona (Spain). The calculated ecological risk indicated a negligible impact on the aquifer. Giving the increasing importance of studying mixtures of pollutants and due to the widespread presence of nanomaterials (NMs) in the aquatic environment, other objective of this work was to explore the response on D. magna after exposure to both binary combinations of UV-Fs among them and UV-F with NMs. In all cases but the nano-silver mixtures, joint toxicity was mitigated or even eradicated. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Acute toxicity; UV filters; Nanomaterials; Combined effects; Groundwater; Hazard Quotients
2016, Volume: 145, pages: 126-134
Publisher: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
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