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Research article2017Peer reviewed

'Parks with People' in Mozambique: Community Dynamic Responses to Human-Elephant Conflict at Limpopo National Park

Giva, Nicia; Raitio, Kaisa


Drawing on experiences from a National Park inhabited by people in Mozambique, this article explores how the parks with people' approach has evolved within a complex context characterised by conflicts between wildlife conservation and farming-based livelihoods. It analyses how communities and the park management in Limpopo National Park have dealt with the dual conservation and livelihood needs shaped by climate adversities. The article also looks at the responses advanced by the people involved to ensure household food security. We investigate how the seasonal shifting between droughts and floods affects the intensity of wildlife conflicts and the communities' coping strategies. We contrast the communities' dynamic responses with the static, top-down management approach adopted by the park - often driven by donor priorities - and discuss opportunities for formulating means of adaptive co-management. Our results emphasise the value of contextual understanding when crafting strategies that are likely to reconcile conservation and livelihood goals. This requires a Mode 2' science approach that builds on a close collaboration with the affected communities and covers a time span of several seasons.


inhabited protected areas; Limpopo National Park; human-wildlife conflict; food security; co-management; Mozambique

Published in

Journal of Southern African Studies
2017, Volume: 43, number: 6, pages: 1199-1214

      SLU Authors

    • Sustainable Development Goals

      Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
      End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

      UKÄ Subject classification

      Fish and Wildlife Management

      Publication identifier


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