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Research article2018Peer reviewedOpen access

Manure management and public health: Sanitary and socio-economic aspects among urban livestock-keepers in Cambodia

Strom, Gunilla; Albihn, Ann; Jinnerot, Tomas; Boqvist, Sofia; Andersson-Djurfeldt, Agnes; Sokerya, Seng; Osbjer, Kristina; San, Sorn; Davun, Holl; Magnusson, Ulf


Livestock manure is a valuable source of nutrients for crop production, but can also pose a public health hazard and have negative environmental impacts. This study investigated manure management practices among urban and peri-urban livestock keepers in Cambodia, to identify risk behaviours and socio-economic aspects associated with the handling of manure. A survey including 204 households was conducted, using a structured questionnaire with questions on demographics, socio-economic characteristics and household practices related to manure management. Faecal samples were obtained from pig pens and pig manure storage units for analysis of the potential zoonotic pathogens Salmonella enterica (Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)), Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis (McMaster flotation technique). The survey revealed a difference in management between cattle and pig manure. Cattle manure was most commonly used as fertiliser for crop production (66%) (p < 0.001), whereas pig manure was most commonly dumped in the environment (46%) (p < 0.001). Logistic regression models showed that households with a lower socio-economic position were more likely to dump pig manure p < 0.001), with scarcity of agricultural land (p < 0.001) and lack of carts for transportation of manure (p < 0.01) being identified as contributing factors. Salmonella enterica was detected in 9.7% of manure samples, while Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis were detected in 1.6% and 2.4% of the samples, respectively. The results presented in this study indicate that manure management by urban and peri-urban households may pose a public health threat and an environmental hazard. There is evidently a need for further knowledge support to the livestock keepers to promote good management practices. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (


Manure management; Urban livestock; Pig production; Socio-economic; Public health; Cambodia

Published in

Science of the Total Environment
2018, Volume: 621, pages: 193-200