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Research article - Peer-reviewed, 2017

Storability and freezing tolerance of Douglas fir and Norway spruce seedlings grown in mid-Sweden

Malmqvist, Cecilia; Wallertz, Kristina; Lindstrom, Anders


Climate change provides new challenges to Nordic forestry. Use of non-native species, such as Douglas fir, can be a means of mitigating the effects of climate change and meeting the growing demand for biomass. When Douglas fir is grown in Sweden, it is several degrees of latitude north of its normal range, which can affect timing of growth cessation, hardening of seedlings, and seedling storability. The objective of this study was to investigate tolerance to freezing and sub-zero storability of seven Douglas fir provenances and make comparisons with the native Norway spruce. Freezing tolerance and storability were evaluated by measuring the electrolytic leakage of shoots and roots after freezing, complemented with a three-week cultivation test after storage. All provenances of Douglas fir used in this study were able to tolerate frozen storage at -4 degrees C for about four months. Norway spruce and the interior Douglas fir provenance, Three Valley, could be stored earlier in the autumn than the southern coastal Douglas fir provenances. Consequently, it should be possible to store Douglas fir seedlings with the same routines as for Norway spruce.


Frost tolerance; frozen storage; containerized seedlings; non-native species; nursery routines; Pseudotsuga menziesii; Picea abies

Published in

Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research
2017, volume: 32, number: 1, pages: 30-38

Authors' information

Malmqvist, Charlotte
Linnaeus University
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Unit for Field-based Forest Research
Lindström, Anders
Dalarna University
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, School for Forest Management

Sustainable Development Goals

SDG13 Climate action

UKÄ Subject classification

Forest Science

Publication Identifiers


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